October 2014

In this Issue:

 Scottish Inependence Referendum  Coming Events
 Scotland Reacts to "No" Vote  October Celebrations
 Local Referndum Watch Party  Society Officers
 The 1707 Acts of Union  The Jacobite Uprisings
 Rise & Fall of William Wallace Part 2  

Scottish Independence Referendum

The Scottish independence referendum was a referendum on Scottish independence that took place in Scotland on 18 September 2014.
The independence question, which voters answered with "Yes" or "No" was "Should Scotland be an independent Country?" The "No" side won, with 55.3% voting against independence. The turnout of 84.6% was unusually high for a ballot in the United Kingdom.

The Scottish Independence Referendum Bill, setting out the arrangements for this referendum, was passed by the Scottish Parliament in November 2013, following an agreement between the Scottish and the United Kingdom governments, and was enacted as the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013. To pass, the independence proposal required a simple majority. With some exceptions, all European Union (EU) or Commonwealth citizens resident in Scotland aged 16 or over could vote, a total of almost 4.3 million people.

Yes Scotland was the main campaign group for independence, while Better Together was the main campaign group in favour of maintaining the union. Many individuals were also involved. Prominent issues raised during the campaign included which currency an independent Scotland would use, public expenditure, EU membership, and North Sea

The results were: "Yes" 1,617, 989 votes "No" 2,001,926 votes

Relief & Devastation as Scotland Reacts to "No" Vote

By Sam Ball, in Edinburgh, Scotland September 19, 2014

Relief and disappointment

As Scotland awoke on Friday to the news that the country would not b ending its 307-year membership in the United Kingdom, there was a mixture of relief and bitter disappointment on the streets of the capital Edinburgh.

In many ways it was a day like any other, as people braved the cold and drizzle on their way to work or school and life continued largely as normal. It could have all been so different. The night before, the streets and bas of the capital, as in towns across Scotland, had been packed with people, many of them "yes" supporters, waiting in tense anticipation for the results of Thursday's referendum on independence. People drank, sang and waved the Saltire, Scotland's national flag, as they awaited what many thought would be a monumental day in their country's history. Many stayed up all through the night to find out the outcome.

'Absolutely gutted'

But as the results of the referendum arrived early Friday morning to reveal a decisive 55 percent to 45 percent vote in favour of staying in the union with the UK—with 61 percent in the capital rejecting separation—the jubilation among an extremely passionate "yes" camp quickly melted away. "I'm absolutely gutted," said Liz Wood, a 60-year-old cleaner and lollipop lady (or crossing guard, in America), and an ardent independence supporter.

"It will all be downhill from here. The English will take charge again and we'll all have to pay for it." A "yes" vote on Thursday would no doubt have triggered the biggest party this country has ever seen. In contrast, "no" voters, many of whom had voted on the belief that independence was just too risky for Scotland, seemed to be more relieved than jubilant, despite their victory

"I'm not ecstatic, just glad it was a "no" in the end," says Graham, as he waits for a bus to his job as an accountant. He says he voted 'No" because there were too many uncertainties about independence, such as the currency the country would use or whether big businesses would leave.
Nevertheless, he hopes the vote to stay in the union will not mean a continuation of the status quo. "I hope there's going to be big changes," he says. "More power to the Scottish parliament, to the Scottish people."

Hope for 'real' change

Collin, a 68-year-old university professor, also admits to feeling "a bit flat" after the result, despite voting "no" himself—though he says he only did so because he thought the terms of independence would have still meant too many ties to England.

"Even it had been a "yea" vote, we would still be tied to the English and to Westminster," he says. "We would have had to keep the pound, the monarchy."

The main question for him and voters on both sides is now: What next for Scotland? Westminster has already promised greater powers for the Scottish parliament. But it remains to be seen what form these will take. "I hope there's going to be increased devolution and a move towards a more federal system among the UK countries," says Collin. "I think the passion and closeness of the vote has given a real shock to Westminster. These last months have given me hope for real constitutional change."

Local Referendum Watch Party

Phoenix AZ - September 19, 2014 - Don FinchB

The Caledonian Society of AZ sponsored a Scottish Referendum Vote Watch Party last night at Rosie McCaffrey's Pub on E. Camelback Avenue in Phoenix. We thought it fitting to watch this electoral contest between the Scots and the Brits on neutral Irish ground.

Our good intentions to stream the results live from Scotland on to the pub's tv screen were up-ended by "technical difficulties", but, alas we received the tally via several smart phones…all with the same results—from about 9:00pm local time, the count settled in at 46% No; 54% Yes.

But that didn't prevent Rosie's barmaids from doing their job, and also didn't prevent three of our Scottish-born members from teaching us some new words. Such as "Dreich"—the audience had to identify the real meaning: a) Raincoat; b) Drunk; c) Miserable; or d) Rich. Mark Clark, Lori Cameron and Iain Walinck (who none of us can understand even when we're sober) teased us with words like that. After several rounds, including the quarter and semi-finals, Linna Thompson was declared the winner, with Andrew and Jackie Minto as strong runner-ups.

One of the highlights of the evening was the arrival of local pipers Michael McClanathan and Len Wood, plus members of the Phoenix Pipe Band who 'chanted' us back into the pub from the parking lot. Just in time, as those pesky barmaids thought all those cheap Scots had snuck out without paying! Michael, in his saltire shirt was also inducted with the Quaich Ceremony as the 2015 Pipes Chair for the 51st Annual Highland Games (March 21/22, 2015.

By the way…a new poll was revealed 'dreich' as Scotland's favourite word in the Scots language. With 23 per cent of the public vote, and perhaps proving Scotland's love for talking about the weather, the word 'dreich' meaning 'wet', 'cold' and 'gloomy' trumped other classics such as 'glaikit' ( 20%) 'blether' (12%) and 'crabbit' (11%). For the attendees wearing "Yes" buttons, last night, "Dreich" was a kitting description for the Referendum's results.

The 1707 Acts of Union

The Parliament of England passed the Union with Scotland in 1706 and the Parliament of Scotland passed the Union with England Act in 1707. The Acts, also referred to as the Union of the Parliaments had a significant impact on both England and Scotland. The two acts served to join the two countries into a single kingdom with a single Parliament. Passage of the Acts created the nation of Great Britain from the previous separate states of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland.

Prior to the Acts, England and Scotland shared the same monarch but had separate legislatures. When the two acts took effect in May of 1707, the two legislatures merged into the Parliament of Great Britain, based in London.

On the union, the historian Simon Schama said, "What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world….it was one of the most astonishing transformations in European history."

The Rise and Fall of William Wallace - Part 2

Elderslie near Paisley or at Ellerslie near Kilmarnock (histories make both accounts seem equally convincing), possibly on August 5, 1270. His parentage is also uncertain. Once source gives his father's name as Malcolm, while a seal attached to a letter Wallace sent to Lubeck in Germany, calls him Alan. In contrast, it's almost certain that Wallace's mother was Margaret Crawfuid of Ardelowan in Ayrshire. The name Wallace means that William was of Welsh descent. His ancestors may have moved north from Shropshire, on the English/Welsh borders in the 12th century. Whatever his origins, Wallace seems to have leapt onto the pages of history in May 1297. No one really knows what he did before this or how he managed to gather dissenters around him.

It is said by some that he had previously married a woman called Marion Braidfute in Lanark. It seems that Wallace was being hunted by Lanark's sheriff and gone into hiding. Furious that Wallace could not be found, the sheriff ordered that Wallace's house be burnt to the ground and all within it killed, including Marion. When Wallace learned of the outrage, he returned to Lanark and killed the sheriff. While history does record that the sheriff was slain by Wallace, his reasons for the assassination may have had little to do with Marion. Wallace's act could have been a genuine call to arms or simply the settling of a quarrel; we just don't know. What we do know is that the murder led the Scots to rise up against the English with Wallace at their lead.

Wallace found it easy to muster troops. It may have been that Wallace had powerful colleagues who recognized his leadership qualities or perhaps Wallace was the only one prepared, or even able, to assume the mantle. King Edward had many of Scotland's nobility in his pocket through promises of titles and estates. Others were languishing in Edward's English jails. It is important to remember that Wallace was not sole leader of the uprising. Andrew Murray had led a revolt in the north. Together they were known as "commanders of the army of the Kingdom of Scotland."

The Battle of Stirling Bridge (September 1297) was a resounding victory for the Scots. When Murray died of his battle wounds, Wallace assumed sole command of the army. Edward, seeing that his army had been incompetently led, assumed command of the English forces himself. The fighting ebbed and flowed between the two armies until the Battle of Falkirk (July 1298) when the Scots were defeated. Wallace now resigned his position as guardian of Scotland and stayed out of sight. In 1304, Edward captured Stirling and Scotland was subjugated once more.

In that same year, Wallace was betrayed by a Scottish knight and taken to England where he was put on trial for murder and treason. In London on August 23, Wallace was hanged. His head was impaled on a spike and shown at London as a lesson to others. If Edward thought this display would finally end the uprising, he was wrong. Instead, he had created a martyr, and the Scots rose in disgust.

William Wallace has never been forgotten, even though we know so very little about him. In fact, the lack of historical information, plus his impact on Scottish history, has tended to turn Wallace into a mythological figure. However, Wallace never wore a kilt. This garment had not even evolved in those days. Besides, he was a Lowlander.

The Jacobite Uprisings

Rising of 1715

The Jacobite rising of 1715 (also referred to as "the Fifteen or Lord Mar's Revolt) was an attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart (also called the Old Pretender) to regain the British throne for the exiled House of Stuart.

In March 1715, the Pretender appealed to the Pope for help for a Jacobite rising. Despite receiving no commission from James to start the rising, the Earl of Mar held a council of war and in September raised the standard of "James the 8th and 3rd" accompanied with 600 supporters. The Jacobite forces, now numbering in the thousands, did well in the first part of the rising against England, but by January 1716 when James landed in Scotland, their army had been much depleted. On February 4 the Old Pretender wrote a farewell letter to Scotland and sailed away. Many Jacobites were taken prisoner and tried for treason and sentenced to death.

Rising of 1745

The first Jacobite rebellion (the Fifteen) was followed in 1745 by the second rebellion (the Forty-five). This time the attempt to place a Stuart on the English throne was led by Charles Edward Stuart—Bonnie Prince Charlie—the Young Pretender.

The famous Battle of Culloden, with Charles as the leader of the Jacobite forces, ended in a drastic defeat and caused Charles Stuart to flee to France with a price on his head. This was the final blow to the Jacobite cause. The British government wished to ensure that another rising could not take place. The Act of Proscription 1746 was passed which outlawed the wearing of traditional tartan Highland dress. A later act removed the feudal authority of the Clan Chieftains.

Coming Events

October 9 Membership Meeting
October 25 Ian Malcom Concert at the ICC
October 25 Ian Malcom Concert at the ICC
Oct 31 - Nov 2 Tucson Games
November 9 RAF Memorial Ceremony, Mesa
November 13 No membership meeting

SOCIETY MEETING Regular membership meetings are held the second Thursday of each month at the Irish Cultural Center, 1106 N. Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ. beginning at 6:30 pm. Come join us or log on to www.arizonascots.com.

October Celebrations
If you would like your special date recognized in our monthly newsletter, we need to hear from you. Please let us know your correct birthday and anniversary information by email to anjrams@cox.net and it will be included in our Celebration list.

October 8 Steve Wylie - Birthday
October 11 John & Kathy Beatty - Anniversary
October 12 James Grant - Birthday
October 18 Hope & Earl Singleton - Anniversary
October 18 Mark & Sue Pelletier - Anniversary
October 28 William Redpath - Birthday

Caledonian Society Officers
President: Mark Clark
Past President: (2010 – 2012) Jean Latimer
Vice President Don Finch
Secretary & Membership Chair: Ian Warrander
Treasurer: David McBee
Games Chair
Paul Bell
Trustee 1: Mark Pelletier
Trustee 2: Michelle Crownhart
Trustee 3: Thom von Hapsburg
Newsletter Editor:

Jo Ramsdell
Statutory Agent: Dan Miller